Variable Temperature ITC analysis with AFFINImeter

Analysis of Variable Temperature Isothermal Titration Calorimetry experiments with AFFINImeter

Monitoring a binding event with Isothermal Titration Calorimetry at different temperatures provides a powerful framework for elucidating interesting characteristics of the interaction. Analysis of the isotherms obtained determines the dependence of the association constant (KA) and binding enthalpy (ΔH) with temperature, information that can reveal mechanistic aspects of the interactions, i.e. the existence of allosteric effects and conformational changes (1).

Moreover, kinetic characterization of the interaction at various temperatures gives information about transition state thermodynamics, by means of the dependence of the association and dissociation rate constants (kon and koff) with the temperature. This way, activation free energies of association and dissociation are resolved into its enthalpic and entropic components (2).

Obtaining the full thermodynamic and kinetic profile of 1:1 interactions in a single ITC experiment is now possible with AFFINImeter and KinITC; in order to further exploit the potential of our analytical tools we have recently incorporated a new functionality in AFFINImeter that automatically analyzes variable temperature isothermal Titration Calorimetry assays through Van´t Hoff Plot (Ln(KA) vs 1/T), temperature dependence of ΔH (that determines changes in heat capacity, ΔCp) and Eyring plots (Ln(kon) vs 1/T and Ln(koff) vs 1/T) (3).

AFFINImeter is the only software that provides thermodynamic and kinetic information from a single ITC titration; now incorporates the automatic analysis of variable-temperature experiments.  

You can use this feature for free during one month, go to AFFINImeter webpage.

References

  • Freiburger L, Auclair K, Mittermaier A. Global ITC fitting methods in studies of protein allostery. Methods 2015, 76, pp 149-161.
  • GE Healthcare application note 80. Transition state thermodynamics using Biacore T100, (2007).
  • Ladbury, J. and Doyle, M. (2004). Biocalorimetry 2. Chichester: Wiley.

Extending ITC to Kinetics with kinITC

 

Title: Extending ITC to Kinetics with kinITC

Authors: Philippe Dumas, Eric Ennifar, Cyrielle Da Veiga, Guillaume Bec, William Palau, Carmelo Di Primo, Angel Piñeiro, Juan Sabín, Eva Muñoz, Javier Rial.

Abstract:

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has long been used for kinetic studies in chemistry, but this remained confined to enzymatic studies in the biological field. In fact, the biological community has long had the tendency of ignoring the kinetic possibilities of ITC considering it solely as a thermodynamic technique, whereas surface plasmon resonance is seen as the kinetic technique par excellence. However, the primary signal recorded by ITC is a heat power which is directly related to the kinetics of the reaction. Here, it is shown how this kinetic signal can be recovered by using kinITC, the kinetic extension of ITC. The theoretical basis of kinITC is detailed for the most common situation of a second-order reaction A + B Ω C characterized by kinetic parameters kon,koff. A simplified kinITCETC method based upon the determination of an “Equilibration Time Curve” (ETC) is presented. The ETC is obtained by automatic determination of the “effective end” of each injection. The method is illustrated with experimental results with a comparison to Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) data. kon values were obtained in a wide range, from 103 to 0.5 × 106 M− 1 s− 1. All procedures were implemented in the program AFFINImeter (https://www.affinimeter.com/).

Get full Publication here.

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KinITC

 

KinITC: Obtain Thermodynamic and Kinetic Data from your ITC Measurements in just five clicks

In AFFINImeter we have implemented KinITC, this is a new method to obtain kinetic information from Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Data. With one single titration experiment it calculates the kinetic constants (kon and koff) and the thermodynamic data (KD and ΔH) of 1:1 binding interactions.

AFFINImeter and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

AFFINImeter and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: A perfect match for the complete Thermodynamic and Kinetic Characterization of molecular interactions

  1. Get thermodynamic and Kinetic profiles of your interaction in a few clicks.
  2. Get structural and mechanistic information of complex interacting systems.
  3. Quick access to Data Interpretation Tools.

Have a look at poster of AFFINImeter presented at the NovAlix conference last week, which describes the main features of AFFINImeter with illustrative examples. Many researchers put special attention to the fast and efficient way of processing raw ITC data to get, in just 5 clicks, thermodynamic and kinetic information. Check the video below for a quick demo of this awesome tool!

 

Get the kinetic parameters from standard ITC experiments in 5 clicks.

AFFINImeter & Isothermal Titration Calorimetry from AFFINImeter

Blow the dust off your old ITC binding experiments, you still can get kinetic information out of them

Titration of a

How many experiments have you carried out in your Isothermal Titration Calorimeter during the last years? Do you know that you can reuse them to obtain kinetic information?

 

 

 

KinITC is a methodology recently developed by Philippe Dumas (CNRS, France) to simultaneously get kinetic and thermodynamic information from a standard ITC experiment. The current implementation of kinITC in AFFINImeter is valid only for 1:1 interactions but we intend to extend this for more complex systems in the near future.

 

 

 

kinetics-analysis-in-affinimeter-2
If you have performed experiments of 1:1 interactions in the past, bring them back and use KinITC to get kinetic constants (kon and koff). Under ideal conditions (perfectly clean sample cell, accurate characterization of the response time of your instrument and sufficiently slow kinetics) the resulting values are expected to be equivalent to those obtained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The whole process takes just a few seconds and you can analyse multiple files simultaneously.

Blow the dust off your old ITC binding experiments! Go to AFFINImeter!

 

References:

(1) Burnouf D1, Ennifar E, Guedich S, Puffer B, Hoffmann G, Bec G, Disdier F, Baltzinger M, Dumas P. kinITC: a new method for obtaining joint thermodynamic and kinetic data by isothermal titration calorimetry. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012 Jan 11; 134(1):559-65. doi: 10.1021/ja209057d. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

 

 

How can I get kinetic information from an ITC experiment?

The elucidation of kinetic aspects of molecular interactions has been gaining interest in many research areas. For instance, the quantitative analysis of binding kinetics helps to a better understanding of the biological function of molecular interactions; it also serves to identify and characterize lead compounds in drugs discovery programs. Getting kinetic information of a binding event requires the use of real-time techniques in which, an observable is monitored as a function of time during the course of the titration.

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) has been formally considered a technique to get steady-state binding information. However the primary data of an ITC experiment (ITC raw data), the power vs plot time, is the result of monitoring the heat flow as a function of time. Therefore, the power vs plot time could deliver kinetic information as well.

KinITC (1) is a new analytical tool implemented in AFFINImeter and developed to obtain kinetic information from ITC data of 1:1 interactions. The method consists in determining the Equilibration Time for every peak of the power vs time plot (that is, the time needed to return to baseline after injection) and plot it against the titrant to titrate molar ratio to obtain the so called Equilibration Time Curve (ETC). Noteworthy, a clear sign that the ITC raw data plot contains kinetic information is the increase of the Equilibration Time of the peaks close to mid-titration. Under these conditions, fitting of the ETC yields the dissociation rate constant, koff. Fitting of the corresponding isotherm yields the association constant, KA; ultimately, the association rate constant, kon, is calculated as the product of koff * KA.

kinetics-analysis-in-affinimeter

 

New version with AFFINImeter KinITC Included

AFFINImeter is the most complete software for Isothermal Titration Calorimetry data Analysis. You can easily  build your own Binding Models or Perform Global Simultaneous Analysis of several Isotherms, among other features.

In this new AFFINImeter  version we have implemented KinITC, this is a new method to obtain kinetic information from Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Data. With one single titration experiment it calculates the kinetic constants (kon and koff) and the thermodynamic data (KD and ΔH) of 1:1 binding interactions.

AFFINImeter KinITC (soon to be released) offers a general solution for the smart and efficient analysis of the primary signal obtained from ITC experiments. This solution will include an automatic detection of outliers to remove the noise, the detection of the end injection time, the integration of the injection peaks and a preliminary analysis of the peak shape during the titration. The latter feature will allow to provide an estimation of the kinetic constants in the most typical cases where the experiment involves only the formation of 1:1 complexes.

Simulation, advanced ITC data fitting and Kinetics Analysis
Simulation, advanced ITC data fitting and Kinetics Analysis

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Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of Molecular Recognition Processes

The understanding of molecular recognition processes requires a thorough examination from different perspectives including thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the binding interaction and structural aspects of the interactants and the complex.

The determination of the binding affinity of two (or more) interactants (i.e. a protein/ligand system), through a steady state analysis provides information on how strong is the complex formed, and it is typically expressed in terms of equilibrium binding constants (association, KA , or dissociation, KD constants). The kinetic analysis of the interaction offers information on how fast the complex is formed and how fast it dissociates, expressed in terms of association and dissociation rate constants, respectively (kon and koff).

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The importance of the treatment of ITC raw data in calorimetry experiments

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is an extremely sensitive technique to assess for the formation/disruption of complex chemical/biological species in solution. During the last years, the increase in instrument sensitivity as well as the reduction of the sample concentration required to perform experiments, have made possible to expand the application range of ITC, which is expected to continue growing.

Quality of the ITC Raw Data?

The amount and the quality of useful information that can be obtained from an ITC experiment depend on several factors including the purity of the samples, the concentration of the solutions prepared, the choice of injection volume and its length in time. The researcher handling the instrument is responsible for the appropiate selection of these variables as part of the experimental setup. They can be optimized on the basis of previous experience and also taking advantage of computational simulations. A key factor for this is that ITC is an incremental technique and so the results depend strongly on the injection volume employed to perform the experiment.

Kinetic information from ITC Experiments

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